Management Introduction Questions and Answers 81 to 90

Management Introduction 

Questions 81 to 90



81.
Which of the following is the first step in formulating a career strategy?
(a)
Development of strategic career alternatives
(b)
Analysis of personal strengths and weaknesses
(c)
Consistency testing and strategic choices
(d)
Implementation of the career plan
(e)
Monitoring progress.
82.
Forces/traits within the manager that determine effective leadership behavior include his/her
I.     Values.
II.     Confidence in subordinates.
III.    Hunger for power.
IV.   Aggressiveness.

(a)
Both (I) and (II) above
(b)
Both (I) and (IV) above
(c)
Both (III) and (IV) above
(d)
(I), (II) and (IV) above
(e)
All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
83.
Which of the following is an on-the-job training technique?
(a)
Organizational socialization
(b)
Creation of “assistant-to” positions
(c)
Performance appraisal
(d)
Job enlargement
(e)
Job analysis.
84.
According to Maslow, a person who is looking for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship is at which need level?
(a)
Physiological
(b)
Safety
(c)
Social
(d)
Esteem
(e)
Self-actualization.
85.
Creativity is an important factor in managing people. Which of the following is not true with regard to the creativity process?
(a)
Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas
(b)
The creativity process starts with unconscious scanning
(c)
Intuition connects the unconscious with the conscious
(d)
Insight leads to intuition
(e)
Insight is tested against organizational reality.
86.
Which of the following is not one of the leadership styles suggested by path-goal theory?
(a)
Instrumental leadership
(b)
Benevolent-authoritative leadership
(c)
Supportive leadership
(d)
Participative leadership
(e)
Achievement-oriented leadership.
87.
Which of the following is not an effective listening technique?
(a)
Avoiding premature evaluation
(b)
Avoiding eye contact
(c)
Exhibiting affirmative nods and appropriate facial gestures
(d)
Finding an area of interest in what the other person is saying
(e)
Judging the content of the message, but not the weakness of the speaker.
88.
According to “Expectancy Theory”, the probability of an individual acting in a particular way depends on
I.     The personality of the individual and the likelihood that it will change.
II.     The company and its potential to move in the right direction.
III.    The situation.
IV.   The strength of that individual's belief that the act will have a particular outcome and on whether the individual values that outcome.

(a)
Only (I) above
(b)
Only (IV) above
(c)
Both (I) and (III) above
(d)
Both (II) and (IV) above
(e)
(I), (III) and (IV) above.
89.
Which of the following are reasons why productivity of knowledge workers is more difficult to measure than productivity of industrial workers?
I.     The quality of a knowledge worker’s output cannot be determined immediately.
II.     The output of a knowledge worker often contributes only indirectly to the achievement of the end-result.
III.    Upgraded skills of knowledge workers due to rapid technological advances make output measurement difficult.
IV.   Knowledge workers often assist other organizational units and this contribution is difficult to measure.

(a)
Both (I) and (II) above
(b)
Both (III) and (IV) above
(c)
(I), (II) and (IV) above
(d)
(II), (III) and (IV) above
(e)
All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
90.
Which of the following are the characteristics of the planning process usually adopted in Japanese Management style?
I.     Long-term orientation.
II.     Individual decision-making.
III.    Decisions flowing from bottom to top and back.
IV.   Slow decision-making.

(a)
Both (I) and (II) above
(b)
Both (I) and (III) above
(c)
Both (II) and IV) above
(d)
(I), (III) and (IV) above
(e)
(II), (III) and (IV) above.

Answers

81.
Answer :  (b)
Reason : The steps in formulating a career strategy are as follows :
·      Preparation of a personal profile.
·      Development of long-range personal and professional goals.
·      Analysis of the environment.
·      Analysis of Personal Strengths and Weaknesses.
·      Development of Strategic Career Alternatives.
·      Consistency Testing and Strategic Choices.
·      Development of short-range career objectives and action plans.
·      Development of contingency plans.
·      Implementation of the Career Plan.
·      Monitoring Progress.
Hence, from above discussion, we can infer that option (b) is correct.
82.
Answer :  (d)
Reason : Forces/traits within the manager that determine effective leadership behavior include his/her
·      Values.
·      Confidence in subordinates.
·      Aggressiveness.
83.
Answer :  (c)
Reason : Creation of “assistant-to” positions is an on-the-job training technique.
84.
Answer :  (c)
Reason : According to Maslow, a person who is looking for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship is said to be having a social need.
85.
Answer :  (d)
Reason : Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas. The creative process comprises four phases: unconscious scanning, intuition, insight, and logical formulation. Intuition connects the unconscious with the conscious, and leads to insight. In the final phase of the creative process, insight is tested against organizational reality.
86.
Answer :  (b)
Reason : Path-goal theory suggests four types of leadership : Instrumental, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented leadership.
87.
Answer :  (b)
Reason : Avoiding eye contact is not an effective listening technique. Effective listening requires eye contact. Hence, from above discussion, we can infer that option (b) is not an effective listening technique. Options (a), (c), (d) and (e) are all effective listening techniques.
88.
Answer :  (b)
Reason : According to "expectancy theory", the probability of an individual acting in a particular way depends on the strength of that individual's belief that the act will have a particular outcome and on whether the individual values that outcome. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
89.
Answer :  (c)
Reason : The following are reasons why productivity of knowledge workers is more difficult to measure than productivity of industrial workers :
·     The quality of a knowledge worker’s output cannot be determined immediately.
·     The output of a knowledge worker often contributes only indirectly to the achievement of the end result.
·     Knowledge workers often assist other organizational units and this contribution is difficult to measure.
90.
Answer :  (d)
Reason : The characteristics of the planning process usually adopted in Japanese Management style are : (1) Long-term orientation, (2) Collective decision-making, (3) Decisions flowing bottom to top and back, (4) Slow decision-making. Hence,  (d) is the correct answer.
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