Management Introduction Questions and Answers 191 to 200

Management Introduction 

Questions 191 to 200



191.
Mark's Embroidery produces custom-made embroidery products. One department sells to retail customers, another department sells to catalog customers and a third department sells only to college bookstores. Mark's Embroidery is departmentalized by
(a)
Product
(b)
Customer
(c)
Geographical location
(d)
Process
(e)
Function.
192.
“When managers have substantial but not complete confidence and trust in subordinates and solicit advice from subordinates while retaining the right to make final decision”, Likert’s four systems of management describes it as
(a)
Participative leadership style
(b)
Benevolent-authoritative leadership style
(c)
Consultative leadership style
(d)
Exploitative-authoritative leadership style
(e)
Trait theory of leadership style.
193.
Ravi, a new recruit in Solaris Systems, perceives that his outcomes (pay, perks etc.) are lower as compared to his inputs (qualifications, experience etc.) in relation to his colleagues. Which of the following theories of motivation explains this phenomenon?
(a)
Need hierarchy theory
(b)
Two-factor model
(c)
Equity theory
(d)
Expectancy theory   
(e)
ERG theory.
194.
Which of the following statement(s) is/are true with respect to ‘discretionary expense centers’?
I.     The output of a discretionary expense center cannot be directly used to produce revenues.
II.     Budgets for discretionary expense centers are developed only in terms of maximum        resources that can be consumed by them in a particular period.
III.    For assessing the budgetary performance, the expense constraints are established at the discretion of the manager.
(a)
Only (I) above
(b)
Only (III) above
(c)
Both (I) and (II) above
(d)
Both (II) and (III) above
(e)
All (I), (II) and (III) above.
195.
Quantitative techniques are very useful in making decisions under conditions of varying degrees of uncertainty. Torque Engineering Co. Ltd. faces the problem of allocating resources to its newly set up hydraulic pumps division. Which of the following decision-making techniques can help solve the problem?
(a)
Linear programming
(b)
Decision tree
(c)
Simulation     
(d)
Waiting-line method 
(e)
Game theory. 
196.
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid is an approach to defining leadership styles based on a manager’s concern for people and concern for production. Which of the following styles of management assumes that exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership?
(a)
Authority-obedience management
(b)
Team management
(c)
Country Club management
(d)
Impoverished management
(e)
Organization-man management.
197.
Which of the following refers to the process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture?
(a)
Grapevine
(b)
Orientation
(c)
Socialization
(d)
Introduction
(e)
Training.
198.
Adaptability is essential for present day organizations to survive. Which of the following are characteristics of adaptable organizations?
I.     Employees are given more freedom in decision-making.
II.     Management sets broad goals and objectives.
III.    Accountability revolves around positions.
IV.   Organizational learning is ongoing.
(a)
Both (I) and (III) above
(b)
Both (II) and (IV) above                         
(c)
Both (III) and (IV) above   
(d)
(I), (II) and (IV) above    
(e)
All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
199.
Ratio analysis is a performance evaluation technique that involves determining and evaluating financial ratios. In this regard, which of the following ratios measures a firm’s financial risk?
(a)
Profitability
(b)
Liquidity 
(c)
Activity  
(d)
Leverage
(e)
Return on investment.
200.
Which of the following is a measure of how appropriate organizational goals are and how well an organization is achieving those goals?  
(a)
Competitor analysis
(b)
Environmental scanning
(c)
Situational effectiveness
(d)
Organizational effectiveness
(e)
SWOT analysis.



Answers



191.
Answer : (b)
Reason : Mark's Embroidery is departmentalized by customer, i.e. to say customer divisions are divisions set up to service particular types of clients or customers. Under this method, activities are grouped according to the customers the organization serves and service to the customers is of top priority. (a) Product divisions are divisions created to concentrate on a single product or service of at least a relatively homogeneous set of products or services. (c) Geographic divisions are divisions are designed to serve different geographic areas. Under this method, territory or location is taken as the basis for departmentation. (d) Process divisions are designed to departmentalize the activities through the different process which the organization follows. (e) In Functional departmentation activities are grouped according to their main functional or specialized area such as Production, Finance, Marketing, HR, etc.
192.
Answer : (c)
Reason : When managers have substantial but not complete confidence and trust in subordinates and solicit advice from subordinates while retaining the right to make final decision, Likert’s four systems of management describes it as consultative leadership style.(a) In Participative leadership style the manager has complete trust and confidence in the subordinates in all the matters.(b) In Benevolent leadership style the managers have a patronizing confidence and trust in subordinates, solicit some ideas and opinions from subordinates, motivate with rewards and some fear and punishment, permit some upward communication and allow some delegation of decision-making but with close policy control.(d) In exploitative-authoritative leadership style the managers represents doctorial leadership behavior with all decisions made by the manager. (e) Trait theory of leadership style assumes that leaders share certain inborn personality traits.
193.
Answer : (c)
Reason : J.S.Adam’s equity theory points out that people are motivated to maintain fair relationship between their performance and reward in comparison to others. (a) Maslow’s need hierarchy classifies human needs into five categories : physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs and states that they follow an order. A satisfied need no longer motivates. (b) Herzberg’s two-factor model distinguishes between motivators and hygiene factors. The presence of the former (motivators) causes satisfaction but their absence doesn’t cause dissatisfaction. The absence of the latter (hygiene factors) causes dissatisfaction but their presence doesn’t guarantee satisfaction. (d) Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory holds that people will be motivated to do things to achieve some goals to the extent that they expect that certain actions on their part will help them to achieve the goal. (e) Alderfer’s ERG theory categorizes human needs into three : existence, relatedness, and growth needs.
194.
Answer : (e)
Reason : The following statements are true with respect to ‘discretionary expense centers’:
              I.     The output of a discretionary expense center cannot be directly used to produce revenues.
              II.     Budgets for discretionary expense centers are developed only in terms of    maximum resources that can be consumed by them in a particular period.
              III.    For assessing the budgetary performance, the expense constraints are established at             the discretion of the manager.
195.
Answer : (a)
Reason : Linear programming is a mathematical technique used in optimum allocation of resources in the organization.
Decision tree is a graphical method for identifying alternative actions, estimating probabilities, and indicating the resulting expected pay-off.
Simulation is the technique of developing a model that represents a real or existing system for solving complex problems that cannot be readily solved by other techniques.
Waiting-line or queuing model is a mathematical model that describes the operating characteristics of queuing situations, in which service is provided to persons or units waiting in line.
Game theory is a technique for determining the strategy that is likely to produce maximum profits in a competitive situation.
196.
Answer : (d)
Reason : Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid is an approach to defining leadership styles based on a manager’s concern for people and concern for production. Impoverished management assumes that exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership.
197.
Answer : (c)
Reason:  Socialization refers to the process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.
198.
Answer : (d)
Reason : The following are characteristics of adaptable organizations
·            Employees are given more freedom in decision-making
·            Management sets broad goals and objectives
·            Organizational learning is ongoing
·            Accountability revolves around projects and not positions
              Hence, option (d) is the answer.
199.
Answer : (d)
Reason : Leverage ratio’s indicate the firms financial risk. (a) Profitability ratios provide a firms overall economic performance (b) Liquidity ratios measure a firm’s capacity to meet its short-term financial obligations. (c) Activity ratios reflects a firm’s efficiency in resource utilization.
200.
Answer : (d)
Reason : Organizational effectiveness is a measure of how appropriate organizational goals are, and              how well an

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