CAT Test 1 Question 46 to 50


Now let us turn back to inquire whether sending our capital abroad, and consenting to be taxed to pay emigration fares to get rid of the women and men who are left without employment in consequence, is all that Capitalism can do when our employers, who act for our capitalists in industrial affairs, and are more or less capitalists themselves in the earlier stages of capitalistic development, find that they can sell no more of their goods at a profit, or indeed at all, in their own country.

Clearly they cannot send abroad the capital they have already invested, because it has all been eaten up by the workers, leaving in its place factories and railways and mines and the like; and these cannot be packed into a ship’s hold and sent to Africa. It is only the freshly saved capital that can be sent out of the country. This, as we have seen, does go abroad in heaps. But the British employer who is working with capital in the shape of works fixed to British land held by him on long lease, must; when once he has sold all the goods at home that his British customers can afford to buy, either shut up his works until the customers have worn out their stock of what they have bought, which would bankrupt him (for the landlord will not wait), or else sell his superfluous goods somewhere else: that is, he must send them abroad. Now it is not easy to send them to civilised countries, because they practise Protection, which means that they impose heavy taxes (customs duties) on foreign goods. Uncivilised countries, without Protection, and inhabited by natives to whom gaudy calicoes and cheap showy brassware are dazzling and delightful novelists, are the best places to make for at first.

But trade requires a settled government to put down the habit of plundering strangers. This is not a habit of simple tribes, who are often friendly and honest. It is what civilised men do where there is no law to restrain them. Until quite recent times it was extremely dangerous to be wrecked on our own coasts, as wrecking, which meant plundering wretched ships and refraining from any officious efforts to save the lives of their crews, was a well-established business in many places on our shores. The Chinese still remember some astonishing outbursts of looting perpetrated by English ladies of high position, at moments when law was suspended and priceless works of art were to be had for the grabbing. When trading with aborigines begins with the visit of a single ship, the cannons and cutlasses it carries may be quite sufficient to overawe the natives if they are troublesome. The real difficulty begins when so many ships come, that a little trading station of white men grows up and attracts the white ne’er-do-wells and violent roughs who are always being squeezed out of civilisation by the pressure of law and order. It is these riffraff who turn the place into a sort of hell in which sooner or later missionaries are murdered and traders plundered. Their home governments are appealed to put a stop to this. A gunboat is sent out and inquiry made. The report after the inquiry is that there is nothing to be done but to set up a civilised government, with a post office, police, troops, and a navy in the offing. In short, the place is added to some civilised Empire. And the civilised taxpayer pays the bill without getting a farthing of the profits.

Of course the business does not stop there. The riffraff who have created the emergency move out just beyond the boundary of the annexed territory, and are as great a nuisance as ever to the traders when they have exhausted the purchasing power of the included natives and push on after fresh customers. Again they call on their home government to civilise a further area; and so bit by bit the civilised Empire grows at the expense of the home taxpayers, without any intention or approval on their part, until at last, though all their real patriotism is centred on their own people and confined to their own country, their own rulers, and their own religious faith, they find that the centre of their beloved realm has shifted to the other hemisphere. That is how we in the British Islands have found our centre moved from London to the Suez Canal, and are now in the position that out of every hundred of our fellow-subjects, in whose defence we are expected to shed the last drop of our blood, only eleven are whites or even Christians. In our bewilderment some of us declare that the Empire is a burden and a blunder, whilst others glory in it as a triumph. You and I need not argue with them just now, our point for the moment being that, whether blunder or glory, the British Empire was quite unintentional. What should have been undertaken only as a most carefully considered political development has been a series of commercial adventures thrust on us by capitalists forced by their own system to cater for foreign customers before their own country’s needs were one-tenth satisfied.

46.        It may be inferred that the passage was written:
            [1] when Britain was still a colonial power.          
            [2] when the author was in a bad mood.
            [3] when the author was working in the foreign service of Britain.
            [4] when the author’s country was overrun by the British.

47.        According to the author, the main reason why capitalists go abroad to sell their goods is:
[1] that they want to civilise the underdeveloped countries of the world by giving them their goods.
            [2] that they have to have new places to sell their surplus goods
            [3] that they actually want to rule new lands and selling goods is an excuse.
            [4] None of the above.

48.        Why do the capitalistic traders prefer the uncivilised countries to the civilised ones?
            [1] Because they find it easier to rule there.
            [2] Because civilised countries would make them pay protection duties.
            [3] Because civilised countries would make their own goods.
[4] Because uncivilised countries like the cheap and gaudy goods of bad quality all capitalists produce.

49.        According to the author, the habit of plundering strangers:
            [1] is usually not found in simple tribes but civilised people.
            [2] is usually found in the barbaric tribes of the uncivilised nations.
            [3] is a habit limited only to English ladies of high position.
            [4] is a usual habit with all white skinned people.

50.        Which of the following may be called the main complaint of the author?
            [1] The race of people he belongs to are looters and plunderers.
            [2] The capitalists are taking over the entire world.
            [3] It is a way of life for English ladies to loot and plunder.
            [4] The English taxpayer has to pay for the upkeep of territories he did not want.

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