Management Introduction Questions and Answers 21 to 30

Management Introduction 

Questions 21 to 30



21.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) is a sophisticated performance rating method. Which of the following is not true with regard to BARS?
(a)   BARS minimizes subjective interpretation inherent in graphic rating scales
(b)   BARS makes use of ‘anchors’ (common reference points of performance)
(c)   BARS concentrates on job-specific behaviors and hence is highly meaningful
(d)   BARS is a simple and cost-effective rating method          
(e)   BARS can be applied in organizations where a large number of people perform similar jobs.
22.
Which of the following is not true with regard to functional authority?
(a)  Functional authority is the authority staff members have over line members within the   limits of their functions
(b)  Functional authority has the same effect as line authority but it doesn’t have the right that line authority has, to punish violations or deviations in order to ensure compliance
(c)  Functional authority is limited to those areas where a staff member has some technical competence
(d)  The use of functional authority should be restricted to the procedural aspects of a function
(e)   Functional authority is in sync with the principle of unity of command.
23.
Creativity is an important factor in managing people. Which of the following is not true with regard to the creative process?
(a)  Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas
(b)  The creative process starts with unconscious scanning
(c)  Intuition connects the unconscious with the conscious
(d)  Insight leads to intuition
(e)   Insight is tested against organizational reality.
24.
According to "expectancy theory", the probability of an individual acting in a particular way depends on
I.     The personality of the individual and the likelihood it will change.
II.     The company and its potential to be moving in the right direction.
III.    The situation.
IV.   The strength of that individual's belief that the act will have a particular outcome and on whether the individual values that outcome.
(a)  Only (I) above                                  (b)  Only (IV) above
(c)  Both (I) and (III) above                      (d)  Both (II) and (IV) above
(e)  (I), (III) and (IV) above.
25.
Which of the following techniques for improving productivity aims at reducing costs by analyzing and improving individual operations of a product or service?
(a)  Work simplification                          (b)  Time-event network             (c)  Value engineering
(d)  Total Quality Management                (e)  Quality Circle.
26.
Span of control an important factor, which is to be taken into account when undertaking organizational design. Maintaining a large span of control within an organization is most effective in all except one of the following situations?
(a)   When subordinates prefer autonomy
(b)   When tasks are routine
(c)  When jobs are similar but have varying performance measures
(d)  When subordinates are highly trained
(e)  When managers are competent.
27.
Functional job analysis is a widely used systematic job analysis approach. Which of the following dimensions of an individual’s job does functional job analysis focus on?
I.     Data, people and jobs pertaining to the individual’s job.
II.     Interpersonal relationships required to perform the job.
III.    Tools and equipment used by the worker.
IV.   Products and services produced by the worker.

(a)  Only (I) above                                                          (b)  Only (III) above       
(c)  Both (II) and (IV) above                                             (d)  (I), (III) and (IV) above                             
(e)  All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
28.
Organizational culture is the collection of shared values, beliefs, rituals, stories, myths and specialized language that foster a feeling of community among organization members. Which of the following is not a characteristic of organization culture?
(a)   It differentiates one organization from another
(b)   It defines the internal environment of an organization
(c)   It ensures consistency in the behavior of organization members
(d)   It remains absolutely stable throughout the life of an organization
(e)   It is perceived by the organization members as well as by outsiders.
29.
Management By Objectives (MBO) is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Which of the following is not an advantage of MBO?
(a)  Role clarity                                      (b)  Clarity in organizational action
(c)  Personnel satisfaction                      (d)  Basis for organizational change
(e)  Flexibility.
30.
Which of the following are the characteristics of the planning process usually adopted in Japanese Management style?
I.     Long-term orientation.                    
II.     Individual decision-making.
III.    Decisions flowing from bottom to top and back.    
IV.  Slow decision-making.

(a)  Both (I) and (II) above                       (b)  Both (I) and (III) above
(c)  Both (II) and IV) above                      (d)  (I), (III) and (IV) above
(e)  (II), (III) and (IV) above.

Answers


21.
Answer : (d)Reason :    BARS minimizes subjective interpretation inherent in graphic rating scales. They make use of ‘anchors’ (common reference points of performance) and they concentrate on job-specific behaviors and hence are highly meaningful. However, BARS are time-consuming and costly to develop, as they should cover each dimension of all jobs in the department. As a result, BARS tend to be used in situations in which relatively large numbers of individuals perform similar jobs.
22.
Answer : (e)Reason :    The authority to control other departments, related to specific tasks, is known as functional authority. It is defined as the formal authority staff members have over line members within the limits of their functions. It has the same effect as line authority but it does not have the right that line authority has, to punish violations or deviations in order to ensure compliance. Functional authority is limited to those areas where a staff person has some technical competence. The use of functional authority should be restricted to the procedural aspects of a function. But functional authority violates the principle of unity of command since authority over specific functional activities is exercised not only by line managers but also by staff managers.
23.
Answer : (d)Reason :    Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas. The creative process comprises four phases: unconscious scanning, intuition, insight, and logical formulation. Intuition connects the unconscious with the conscious, and leads to insight. In the final phase of the creative process, insight is tested against organizational reality.
24.
Answer : (b)Reason :    According to "expectancy theory", the probability of an individual acting in a particular way depends on the strength of that individual's belief that the act will have a particular outcome and on whether the individual values that outcome. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
25.
Answer : (c)Reason : Value engineering involves analyzing the operations of the products or service, estimating the value of each operation, and modifying that operation so that the cost is lowered.
                 (a) Work simplification involves teaching workers the concepts of time and motion studies, layout of work situations, and workflow analysis in order to improve work methods.
              (b) Time-event network is a logical extension of the Gantt chart and uses Critical Path Method to help in planning and controlling operations.
              (d) Total Quality Management (TQM) calls for active participation of all the members at all levels of the organization in order to ensure its (the organization’s) long-term commitment to improvement of quality.
                (e) A quality circle is a group of people who belong to an organizational area and who meet regularly to solve the problems they face at work.
26.
Answer : (c)   Reason : Maintaining a large span of control within an organization is most effective in all situations except when jobs are similar but have varying performance measures.
27.
Answer : (d)Reason :    Functional Job Analysis focuses on the following dimensions of an individual job:
              I.     Data, people and jobs pertaining to the individual’s job.
              III.    Tools and equipment used by the worker.
IV.       Products and services produced by the worker.
                 Hence, from above discussion, we can infer that option (d) is correct.
28.
Answer : (d)Reason :    Organization culture is the collection of shared values, beliefs, rituals, stories, myths, and specialized language that foster a feeling of community among organization members. Organizational culture is distinctive and it differentiates one organization from another. It is based on certain norms, which define the internal environment of an organization. When the members of an organization interact with each other, they use a common language, and follow the same norms and hence organizational culture ensures consistency in their behavior. It is perceived by the members of the organization as well as by outsiders. Though organizational culture is fairly stable, it keeps evolving from time to time.
29.
Answer : (e)Reason :    MBO helps in better managing the organizational resources and activities through clarity of objectives, role clarity, periodic feedback on performance, and participation by managers. It provides the key result areas (KRAs) where organizational efforts are needed, which leads to clarity in organizational action. Since MBO allows participation of employees in objective setting and a rational performance appraisal, it provides the greatest opportunity for personnel satisfaction. Also, MBO stimulates organizational change and provides a framework and guidelines for planned change, enabling the top management to initiate, plan, direct, and control the direction and speed of change. However, MBO has some limitations also, which include inflexibility in the organization, particularly when the objectives need to be changed.
30.
Answer : (d)Reason :    The characteristics of the planning process usually adopted in Japanese Management style are: (1) Long-term orientation, (2) Collective decision-making, (3) Decisions flowing bottom to top and back, (4) Slow decision-making. Hence,  (d) is the correct answer.

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